Are Fuses required for PV panels?

If not then this label causes confusion…

Yes, they are.

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You fuse to protect the wire (and your home)
That sticker says that a 10A fuse will be fine as the panel would not produce more than 10A, but it also says (not in clear words) that you need to use PV wire that is rated more than 10A.

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The fuses only offer protection against current flowing back into a faulty string either from other strings connected in parallel or from a faulty inverter letting either the AC or Battery voltage to flow back into the faulty string. The fuse in the faulty string would then blow to Isolate said string from all other power sources before the wires can start overheating. This then prevents fires.

A correctly rated PV fuse will never blow solely prom the power produced by the sting alone even in a dead short condition.